State Laws Governing Banks, Banking, and Lending

All U. S. states have adopted at least a portion of the Uniform Commercial Code, including Articles 3 (1990 version), 4 (1990 version), 4A (1989 version), and 5 (1995 version). Article 9 was last revised in 2000, with the previous major revision occurring in 1972. Most state laws governing banks, banking, and lending are consistent from one state to the next. Moreover, due to federal regulation of banks and banking, states are rather limited in their ability to enact laws that differ from the majority of states.

ALABAMA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1995; Article 4A in 1992; and Article 5 in 1997. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

ALASKA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1993; Article 4A in 1993; and Article 5 in 1999. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

ARIZONA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1993; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1996. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

ARKANSAS: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1991; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1997. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

CALIFORNIA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1992; Article 4A in 1990; and Article 5 in 1996. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

COLORADO: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1994; Article 4A in 1990; and Article 5 in 1996. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

CONNECTICUT: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1991; Article 4A in 1990; and Article 5 in 1996. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

DELAWARE: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1995; Article 4A in 1992; and Article 5 in 1998. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

FLORIDA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1992; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1999. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

GEORGIA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1996; Article 4A in 1993. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

HAWAII: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1991; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1996. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

IDAHO: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1993; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1996. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

ILLINOIS: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1991; Article 4A in 1990; and Article 5 in 1996. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

INDIANA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1991; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1996. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

IOWA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1994; Article 4A in 1992; and Article 5 in 1996. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

KANSAS: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1991; Article 4A in 1990; and Article 5 in 1996. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

KENTUCKY: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1996; Article 4A in 1992; and Article 5 in 2000. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

LOUISIANA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1992; Article 4A in 1990; and Article 5 in 1999. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

MAINE: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1993; Article 4A in 1992; and Article 5 in 1997. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

MARYLAND: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1996; Article 4A in 1992; and Article 5 in 1997. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

MASSACHUSETTS: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1998; Article 4A in 1992; and Article 5 in 1998. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

MICHIGAN: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1993; Article 4A in 1992; and Article 5 in 1992. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

MINNESOTA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1992; Article 4A in 1990; and Article 5 in 1997. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

MISSISSIPPI: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1995; Article 4A in 1992; and Article 5 in 1997. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

MISSOURI: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1992; Article 4A in 1992; and Article 5 in 1997. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

MONTANA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1991; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1997. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

NEBRASKA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1991; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1996. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

NEVADA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1993; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1997. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

NEW HAMPSHIRE: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1993; Article 4A in 1993; and Article 5 in 1998. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

NEW JERSEY: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1995; Article 4A in 1995; and Article 5 in 1998. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

NEW MEXICO: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1992; Article 4A in 1992; and Article 5 in 1997. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

NEW YORK: Adopted older uniform law on negotiable instruments in 1897; Article 4A in 1990; and Article 5 in 2000. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

NORTH CAROLINA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1995; Article 4A in 1993; and Article 5 in 1999. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

NORTH DAKOTA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1991; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1997. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

OHIO: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1994; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1997. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

OKLAHOMA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1991; Article 4A in 1990; and Article 5 in 1996. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

OREGON: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1995; Article 4A in 1992; and Article 5 in 1997. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

PENNSYLVANIA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1992; Article 4A in 1992; and Article 5 in 2001. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

RHODE ISLAND: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 2000; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 2000. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

SOUTH CAROLINA: Adopted older uniform law on negotiable instruments in 1914; Article 4A in 1996; and Article 5 in 2001. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

SOUTH DAKOTA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1994; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1998. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

TENNESSEE: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1994; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1998. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

TEXAS: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1994; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1998. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

UTAH: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1993; Article 4A in 1990; and Article 5 in 1997. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

VERMONT: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1994; Article 4A in 1994; and Article 5 in 1998. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

VIRGINIA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1992; Article 4A in 1990; and Article 5 in 1997. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

WASHINGTON: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1994; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1998. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

WEST VIRGINIA: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1993; Article 4A in 1990; and Article 5 in 1996. The state adopted the majority of the provisions in the Revised Article 9 (2000) in 2000.

WISCONSIN: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1996; and Article 4A in 1992. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).

WYOMING: Adopted Articles 3 and 4 in 1991; Article 4A in 1991; and Article 5 in 1997. The state has adopted the Revised Article 9 (2000).


Inside State Laws Governing Banks, Banking, and Lending